· There is mucus discharge from the vulva or on the tail.
· The vulva gets inflamed (swells) and there is a change in its color from pink to red.
· It mounts other cows.
· It allows other cows to mount it.
· There is a reduction in milk production in lactating cows.
· There is loss of appetite for some time.
· There is a slight rise in body temperature.
· The cow urinates frequently.
. The cow will get excited and nervous. This makes it run from one place to another while bellowing.
· It will stand nearer to the bulls to be mounted.
Signs of pregnancy in cattle
· The cow will not go on heat 21days after mating.
· There is an extension or bulging of the belly at 5 months
· The udder fills up with milk.
· The cervix closes up.
· A veterinary officer can by putting his hands in the rectum feel the corps luteum in the ovary.
Artificial insemination (A.I).
This is a method of serving a cow where an inseminating syringe is pushed through the vulva and a vagina where semen is deposited in the lower part of the uterus instead of using a bull naturally to serve a cow.
Advantages of Artificial insemination.
· The farmer is able to control or eliminate venereal or bleeding diseases.
· The farmer is able to control inbreeding on the farm.
· It enables the farmer to improve his herd by collecting semen from different types of bulls.
· t is packet friendly since money that would be used to buy and maintain bulls is used to buy more cows.
· It is economical since it’s cheaper to pay for A.I services than to keep a bull.
· Semen from old, lame and died bulls can be used, which is impossible in natural mating.
· A.I prevents injury in small cows and heifers by big and heavy bulls.
· Breeding can be controlled as the farmer will breed animals based on a systematic program.
· A.I increases fertilization of some animals because spermatozoa are deposited in strategic area.
· Semen from a good breed can be made available in remote areas where such breeds are not available.
· A.I can introduce stock into countries where pure-bred sires could hardly survive.
· Infertility or sterility can easily be detected.
· Many animals can be served from a single ejaculate.
Disadvantages of Artificial insemination.
· A.I can not be done successfully on females that do not have obvious heat periods or females whose heat periods can not easily be forecast.
· Little will be achieved if inferior sires are used. in case sires were low in milk, meat, wool, or diseased A.I will not be fruitful.
· A.I can only be carried out by experienced personnel
· There are many problems associated with the storage of semen. Semen is stored in special containers either in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 193°C or in solid carbon dioxide at a temperature of 79°C.
· It doesn’t give animals chance to enjoy themselves naturally.
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